ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa this civilization existed along the lower reaches of the Nile River these follow prehistoric Egypt and formed around 3100 BC with a political unification of upper and lower Egypt under mayonnaise often identified as nor mer the history of these lands is a long one stretched on thousands of years.
the people here experienced throughout time lots of events from conflicts to periods of peace from famine and decay to prosperity and incredible wonders that the world had never seen a series of kingdoms existed separated by periods of relative instability known as intermediate periods the old kingdom of the early Bronze Age the middle kingdom of the middle Bronze Age and the new kingdom of the Late Bronze Age just by looking at these lands and knowing their incredible achievements.
which happened thousands of years ago we may sure consider that this ancient civilization was a successful one considering that the great pyramid of khufu was built around 2582 2560 BC with a simple math calculation the year 1 AD when Jesus existed is closer to our present year than it is to the construction of this gigantic wonder the success of the ancient Egyptian civilizations came from many directions but one is from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River Valley for agriculture.
the predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops which supported a dense population and social development and culture the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions the early development of an independent writing system the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects trade with surrounding regions and a military intended to search Egyptian dominance motivating and organizing.
these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes religious leaders and administrators under the control of a pharaoh a king who secures the unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs the many great achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the construction techniques that supported the building of monumental pyramids temples and obelisks.
a system of mathematics irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques and a practical and effective system of medicine also the Egyptians were masters in cutting and polishing building materials new forms of traditions existed throughout the years and the state also confronted with outside enemies a new interesting thing is that the earliest known peace.
treaty was made between them and the Hittites seeing their great ruins monuments statues buildings that lasted until our days knowing about their medicine abouts their military might even we may ask what happened to them what was the reason or reasons that led to the collapse of ancient Egypt the seeds actually lay around one and a half millennia earlier when Egypt was apparently at the height of its powers in the reign of ramses ii during what is known as the 19th dynasty of egyptian history Rameses great foes were the Hittites of what is now modern Turkey.
a key battle with whom at Kadesh was frequently displayed on the great Pharaoh’s temples but during the course of its history Egypt was invaded or conquered by a number of foreign powers including the Hyksos the Libyans the nubbins the Assyrians and the acumen and Persians the first sign of weakening was a loss of military power and lackluster military development due to available natural resources.
while other surrounding and growing empires were able to forge iron from resources available locally the differences between their was that while the Egyptians were armed with weapons of bronze the Hittites had access to iron thus even if it wasn’t a decisive problem falling behind military technology in comparison to your enemies could be considered as a factor in the coming decline Egypt lacked access to war and other necessary metals slowly.
as the world evolved Egypt became vulnerable to more powerful competing armies additionally throughout history great civilizations collapsed not only because of external pressure but of internal to crises have occurred political conflicts led to the eventual split of the Empire into northern and southern areas and a protracted civil war began between the two regions.
the internal fragmentation was caused in time as these problems led to further division of the Egyptian state and this opened doors for other growing empires to invade and take Egyptian territory and resources coupled with the lack of natural resources to support their military power several political events greatly influenced the Power Balance in Egypt.
the first was the shifting role of the important pharaoh the conflict was on after a long civil war and several attempts to reunite the Egypt state the Empire remains split with huge gaps and administration a loose association between the governments of the two regions every part of the state is important for its continuance and for its prosperity here religion played a major role in nearly all aspects of Egyptian life.
we can see this on ancient walls the hieroglyphs are still there the administration was not working properly and the state was weak from the interior the quality of life has become worse and worse for the ordinary people has the economic disparity between the population and the religious elite grew citizens grew more displeased the religious leaders controls large portions of Egypt’s land giving them a disproportionate share of the nation’s income conflicts.
over wealth distribution led to questions about the lack of proper administration and as well in addition to the distribution of wealth military conflicts towards the end of the ancient Egyptian era were incredibly expensive funding massive military investments strains the government’s capital and further weakened the state all these issues created more issues the dependency of the Nile River the lack of mental resources the corruption that led to the lack of economic health made Egypt less able to handle other stresses.
eventually leading to its fall even if the internal conflicts influence the health of the Egyptian state external military conflicts further weakens the Empire a big blow happened in 7th century BC the nearby Assyrians invaded Egypt the Assyrians occupied Memphis sacks the temples of Thieves and reigned until 627 BC during this time period the Egyptian climate contributed to the fall of ancient Egypt.
in other ways the Nile River which was the primary resource of water for drinking and crop irrigation was a temperamental River known for flooding and periods of low water levels this caused widespread hunger and thousands of Egyptians died from dehydration and starvation while experts believe the low water in the Nile was the primary influence for the fall of ancient Egypt during the later period.
in the Empire’s existence a two to three decades period was marked by erratic flooding of the Nile destroying crops and starving the people depended on them the Assyrians left control of Egypt to a series of vassals who became known as the site kings of the 26th dynasty even if the Assyrians were pushed back the economy and culture were revitalized but in 525 BC.
a new danger appeared the mighty Persian Empire began the conquest of Egypt capturing the Pharaoh some took the 3rd of the Battle of Pella see’em the Persian King assumes the formal title of Pharaoh but ruled Egypt from Iran leaving Egypt under the control of a Satrapi that’s the end of this extended period of political and economic unrest and devis Sadek climate issues.
Egypt has lost most of its land and became a mere province within the Persian Empire revolts happened thousands of its people had died and the public was increasingly dissatisfied with both their political and religious leaders Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire and too was welcomed by the Egyptians as a savior the administration established by Alexander’s successors the makedonia and Ptolemaic Kingdom was based on an Egyptian model and based in the new capital of Alexandria the city showcased.
the power and prestige of Hellenistic rule and became a seat of learning and culture continued Egyptian revolts ambitious politicians and powerful opponents from the Near East mades this situation unstable leading Rome to send forces to secure the country as a province of its Empire Christianity began to spread through Egypt and with its the Greek alphabet both transforming key features of the ancient culture that we know and recognize today adopting a new religion.
where the old religion has been a major cultural force in the Egyptian Empire led to the end of practices such as mummification that’s the ancient Egyptians were well known for similarly adoption of the Greek alphabets led to the disuse of hieroglyphics another key feature of Egypt that we have with us today these shift signals the true fall of ancient Egypt.
although the forces that drove the decline has been operating for a considerable time period in the 4th century as the Roman Empire divided each if found itself in the Eastern Empire in the waning years of the Empire Egypt fell to the sustaining Persian army 618 to 628 AD and was recaptured by the Roman Emperor Heraclius 629 to 639 AD and then was finally captured by the Muslim rashidun Army in 639 – 641 AD ending Roman rule.
in its last centuries from its internal problems until the Arab conquest the Egyptian civilization was more and more influenced by the outside world having their own problems the kingdom of the Nile couldn’t resist against foreign influences Persians Greeks and Romans shaped their culture traditions language and religion